The worldwide deterioration of coral reefs, exacerbated by the latest bleaching events, has been particularly evident in the Caribbean, in which more than 80% of corals have vanished from the reefs.
The Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus), which is the largest known fish reaching up to 13m long and weighing up to 21 tonnes, is a gentle giant but is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is therefore imperative to understand the movement ecology of these docile creatures in order to safeguard them in future.
Sea levels have risen by up to 8 inches over the past century due to climate change and show no signs of slowing down. Now, research led by scientists at the University of Exeter have found that already vulnerable coral reefs could be ‘drowning’ in seawater by the end of the century.
The angelshark (genus Squatina) was once common throughout the coastal and outer continental shelf in the Northeast Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Seas.
Alternative drugs could offer hope in reducing the impact of pharmaceuticals on our oceans.
It only takes a quick glance inside the medicine cupboard of your home to realise that we are becoming a pharmaceutical-dependant society. In fact, a study carried out by Mayo Clinic researchers in 2013 found that almost 70% of Americans take at least one prescription drug. This dependency on drug use coupled with the fact that 41% of the world's population lives along the coastline, has led to concern within the scientific community as to how pharmaceuticals are affecting the health of our oceans.
Most drugs, once consumed, are never fully broken down within the body. They then make their way through our waste and into sewage treatment facilities before being resealed into our waterways relatively untreated. Studies have already begun to show that drugs including anti-depressants and the contraceptive pill can affect marine organisms at a concentration equivalent to less than 100 grains of sugar in an Olympic size swimming pool. These pharmaceuticals act by disrupting the endocrine system within the animals, thereby altering the way their hormones are expressed. Adverse effects have included altered swimming behaviour in amphipod crustaceans and feminization in fish.
However, a study published this month in PLOS One by researchers at Utrecht University and The University of York has pointed towards prescribing alternative natural products to help lessen the effects of pharmaceuticals on our oceans.
Plant, Berberis vulgaris. Credit: iStock.com
The team aimed to assess whether a switch from the potent anti-inflammatory drug ‘prednisolone’ to the natural alternative ‘berberine’ (a derivative of the plant Berberis vulgaris) would have a less harmful effect on the environment and therefore human health through exposure. The research group estimated the effects of both substances throughout Europe using a model based on four parameters. These addressed how both anti-inflammatories were discharged, the fate of the substances in the environment, the exposure to humans and the resulting effects on both human and aquatic life.
Their results found that after consumption, only 0.01% of the natural alternative (berberine) is excreted into the sewerage, which is approximately 2400 times lower than the 24% for the synthetic drug (prednisolone). They also found that berberine is 6 and 1.5 times less toxic to aquatic and human life respectively. Although, they have stated that because the effective dose of berberine has not yet been calculated, we cannot know for sure whether it is less harmful than prednisolone. However, berberine can be administered at six times a higher dose throughout Europe before its impact on the aquatic environment exceeds that of one prescription of prednisolone. Therefore, there is a good chance that even once the effective dose for berberine is released, it will still be a beneficial alternative for the environment.
The threat of pharmaceuticals to the environment is just as concerning as plastic pollution. But there are two main reasons as to why plastic pollution has had so much media attention over the past couple of years. The first is that plastic pollution is far more visual. It’s much easier to show the public an image of a turtle with a plastic bag around its neck than it is to show the effects of pharmaceuticals. And the second is that it’s much easier to get the public to change their lifestyle when it comes to plastic. Most people don’t care if their grocery bag is made from plastic or not and so they are more willing to change the way they live to help the environment. But it is simply unrealistic to ask the public to stop taking pharmaceuticals – something we are so dependent on. And so, the next steps need to be in not only promoting the use of ‘green pharmaceuticals’ such as berberine, but also to improve the way the drugs are handled and treated once they are at the waste treatment plants.
By Ellis Moloney, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Portsmouth
The mysteries of the ocean depths call, but only a few answer, though, the beauty and adventure in what lies closer to the surface, many times, turns from simple wonder, into passionate connection.
The sea turtle has existed for 110 million years—the era of the dinosaurs. The leatherback is the largest species of sea turtle, weighing up to 700 kg and measuring up to 3 meters. It is the only species of sea turtle that does not possess a hard shell and beneath the leathery skin is a medley of bony plates.
The manta ray (Mobula birostris) weighs up to 1580 kg with a span over 9 m and flaunts a hypnotic glide though the water, elegant and stealthy. These characteristics have inspired aquatic engineers to create more efficient bio-robots. Understanding the turning performance of these colossal creatures is fundamental to the manipulation of their manoeuvrability for a robot.
The rainforests of our seas are plagued by plastic waste. Research shows that the accumulation of plastic in our oceans has occurred at an astounding rate with over 8 million tonnes discarded yearly. These plastic pollution pieces have been identified as ideal vessels for pathogens, ultimately propelling disease outbreak rates on reefs.
Gina Torkos is a contemporary artist working in an unusual medium. She creates original collages made entirely of discarded magazines. The results raise awareness about how our disposable culture trashes our environment.
Industry body Subsea UK has launched a new initiative aimed at encouraging school pupils to consider a career at sea. The STEM Challenge, led by Subsea UK and supported by The Smallpeice Trust, will see teams of year nine students compete in a design-and-make challenge for the marine industries.