Polar News

Another Month, Another Record Low for Arctic Sea Ice

According to the National Snow & Ice Data Center (NSIDC), June 2016 set another satellite-era record low for average sea ice extent, despite slower than average rates of ice loss. The slow rate of ice loss reflects the prevailing atmospheric pattern, with low pressure centered over the central Arctic Ocean and lower than average temperatures over the Beaufort Sea.

Arctic sea ice extent during June 2016 averaged 10.60 million square kilometers (4.09 million square miles), the lowest in the satellite record for the month. So far, March is the only month in 2016 that has not set a new record low for Arctic-wide sea ice extent (March 2016 was second lowest, just above 2015). June extent was 260,000 square kilometers (100,000 square miles) below the previous record set in 2010, and 1.36 million square kilometers (525,000 square miles) below the 1981 to 2010 long-term average.

Sea ice extent remains below average in the Kara and Barents seas, as it has throughout the winter and spring. Despite lower than average temperatures over the Beaufort Sea, sea ice extent there remains below average, and was the second lowest extent for the month of June during the satellite data record.

Through 2016, the rate of decline for the month of June is 44,600 square kilometers (17,200 square miles) per year, or 3.7% per decade. June extent remained below 2012 levels throughout the month, but it was above the 2010 extent for several days. 2010 had the lowest extent for several days during June.

A Quick Look at Sea Ice Thickness Fields

Results from NASA’s Operation IceBridge aircraft missions conducted during late April and early May indicate that ice thicknesses from the Alaskan coast of the Beaufort Sea up to the North Pole were generally in the 2 to 3 meter range (7 to 10 feet), indicative of multiyear ice. However, substantial variations were found along the flight transects with several locations showing an ice thickness of 1.5 meters (5 feet) or less, indicative of first-year ice, while in other locations thicknesses were over 5 meters (16 feet), corresponding to either fairly thick multiyear ice or ridged first-year ice. This substantial variation is representative of a broken up and variegated ice pack with thick multiyear floes interspersed with thinner first-year ice.

The first-year thicknesses were found to be generally thinner than is typical at the end of winter, which is consistent with the usually high temperatures characterizing last winter. Very thin ice (less than 0.5 meters, or 1.6 feet) was found in places near the Alaskan coast, where leads opened up fairly late in the ice growth season. The IceBridge results are generally in agreement with the ice thickness surveys conducted in early April by researchers from York University, and with CryoSat-2 thickness maps discussed in our previous post.

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