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Changes in Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperatures can be used to predict extreme climatic variations known as El Niño and La Niña more than a year in advance, according to research conducted at Korea's Pohang University of Science and Technology and published in the journal Scientific Reports.

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The giant oceanic manta ray (Manta birostris) uses lobe-shaped structures to bounce plankton off their gill filters and into their mouth. Credit: S Kajiura/Florida Atlantic University

Researchers at Oregon State University have recently discovered that manta rays are able to filter plankton from seawater using a system never seen before in the natural or industrial world. The findings, published in Science Advances, describe a unique mechanism which resists clogging and therefore offers a new approach for designing filtration systems on an industrial scale.

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About a quarter of the world's seafood caught in the ocean comes from bottom trawling, a method that involves towing a net along the seabed on continental shelves and slopes to catch shrimp, cod, rockfish, sole and other kinds of bottom-dwelling fish and shellfish. The technique impacts these seafloor ecosystems because other marine life and habitats can be unintentionally killed or disturbed as nets pass across the seafloor.

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This true-color image, captured by the NOAA-20 satellite on July 30, 2018, shows a large phytoplankton bloom in the Barents Sea. Credit: NOAA Environmental Visualization Laboratory

Phytoplankton blooms that form the base of the marine food web are expanding northward into ice-free waters where they have never been seen before, according to new research.

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Invasive algae Gracilaria Salicornia forming dense mats over a Hawaiian coral reef. Credit: eorhawaii.org

Macroalgae, known commonly to most as ‘seaweed’ plays an important role in many of the products we use on a day to day basis from toothpaste to cosmetics. However, intensive algal growth caused by human impacts such as overfishing and climate change is one of the biggest indicators of stress on coral reefs. The effects, often permanent, can reduce biodiversity, diminish the economic value of reefs and even kill them.

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